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Труды по прикладной ботанике, генетике и селекции

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Эффективность отбора в ранних поколениях гибридов cельскохозяйственных культур по урожайности и признакам продуктивности (обзор)

https://doi.org/10.30901/2227-8834-2018-4-177-190

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Аннотация

Несмотря на успехи молекулярной генетики, подавляющее большинство российских селекционеров продолжает вести отбор растений по фенотипу. Самый распространенный способ выявления признаков для отбора заключается в расчете коэффициентов корреляции их с урожайностью. Однако мировая наука накопила обширный опыт по прямому отбору в ранних поколениях гибридных популяций по различным признакам с целью повышения урожайности. В связи с этим, цель работы заключалась в информировании российского научного сообщества о результатах таких экспериментов и их анализе для выявления наиболее эффективных селекционных критериев. Анализу подверглись 67 научных работ по отбору в ранних поколениях. В 33 работах сообщается о положительных результатах. Наибольшее соотношение положительных результатов исследований к отрицательным относится к массе 1000 зерен и биомассе, наименьшее – к Кхоз и урожайности (продуктивности). Учитывая высокую наследуемость и простоту измерения массы 1000 зерен, этот признак может быть рекомендован к использованию в практической селекции. Данный результат вступает в противоречие с некоторыми сообщениями об эволюции признаков продуктивности в практической селекции. Выделено 5 причин, снижающих эффективность отбора в ранних поколениях: взаимодействие генотип-среда, гетерозиготность, низкая наследуемость количественных признаков, межгенотипическая конкуренция, полигенная природа признаков продуктивности. Главный вывод исследования состоит в том, что перспективные растения часто возникают в ходе селекционного процесса, но из-за несовершенства методов отбора многие из них не могут быть идентифицированы. Нерешенной фундаментальной проблемой остается прогноз гибридной популяции, отбор в которой по конкретному селекционному критерию приведёт к появлению перспективной линии. 

Об авторе

С. Б. Лепехов
Федеральный Алтайский научный центр агробиотехнологий
Россия


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Для цитирования:


Лепехов С.Б. Эффективность отбора в ранних поколениях гибридов cельскохозяйственных культур по урожайности и признакам продуктивности (обзор). Труды по прикладной ботанике, генетике и селекции. 2018;179(4):177-190. https://doi.org/10.30901/2227-8834-2018-4-177-190

For citation:


Lepekhov S.B. Efficiency of selection in early generations of crop hybrids for high yield and yield components (a review). Proceedings on applied botany, genetics and breeding. 2018;179(4):177-190. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.30901/2227-8834-2018-4-177-190

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